Geoforum Perspektiv <p>Geoforum Perspektiv is a peer-reviewed journal published by Geoforum Denmark, read more about this organisation here <a title="Geoforum" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>.<br>The aim of the Journal is to enhance the ongoing research within the field of spatial information.</p> Geoforum Danmark en-US Geoforum Perspektiv 1601-8796 <p>Authors publishing on Geoforum Perspektiv retain full but non-exclusive rights in their articles, and are required to use the Creative Commons license <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">cc by-nc-nd 3.0 unported</a> when submitting their work.</p> Foreword <p>Summary</p> Peder Dam Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig Jakobsen Per Grau Møller Mads Linnet Perner Stig Roar Svenningsen Copyright (c) 2021 Peder Dam, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig Jakobsen, Per Grau Møller, Mads Linnet Perner, Stig Roar Svenningsen 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 2 2 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6682 Tabula gratulatoria <p>Summary</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mads Linnet Linnet 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 4 4 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6683 Bibliography - Peter Korsgaard <p>Summary</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Mads Linnet Perner 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6678 Landscape analyses with an in-depth time perspective. Report from the engine room <p>The Danish archives hold several unique treasures: one of them is a complete collection of cadastral maps from the agricultural reforms around 1800, another is a complete collection of recordings of each ridge and furrow field visible around 1680. Adding to this, both these sources are digitized and freely accessible online. Needless to say, that these two sources contain an immense potential for studies of open field systems in their landscape setting, and with their digital presence would one think that a study of these is a <em>must</em> for students of the Danish cultural geography and agricultural history.</p> <p>Focus of this paper is a method developed on analogue media by the now deceased multi-talented scientist Axel Steensberg in the 1940s. The method developed by him combined these two unique sources, thus opening a pathway to the understanding of the genesis and development of open field systems in the realm of the kingdom of Denmark. The method is characterized as a retrogressive method, as opposed to a retrospective ditto, and it is described in detail, how to transform it by using GIS-technology.</p> Jens-Bjørn Riis Andresen Copyright (c) 2021 Jens-Bjørn Riis Andresen 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 14 14 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6681 The use of maps and GIS in social history and historical demography: Three cases <p>This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of analyzing historical individual-level records using GIS data based on historical maps. There is a lot to gain in both research and data management from harnessing the geographical information contained in historical sources. However, building infrastructure is a time-consuming process and even when complete it has certain limitations. This article approaches this discussion from two angles. The first one focuses on the benefits of utilizing existing resources in research with the example of pre-industrial Copenhagen. The second angle focuses on the process of building infrastructure by slightly alternative means, namely using a register of aerial photographs combined with crowd sourcing in order to construct a farm-level GIS.</p> Mads Linnet Perner Copyright (c) 2021 Mads Linnet Perner 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 10 10 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6573 Historical maps as source to the history of mapping. From the topographic maps of the Danish General Staff to Soviet Cold War Military maps <p>Historical maps constitute an important source to the geography of the past, but also as a source to the history of maps and mapping. Information about the production and surveying history of maps and map series, including the development of representational practices and cartographic style, are important in order to use them as sources to the geography of the past. However, many (old) map series are characterized by the fact that the definition of information is not well described. Thus, there is a need for an interpretation of land categories based on the, often sparse, written sources – as well as different editions of manuscripts and printed maps. Unfortunately, the methodological issues are not only limited to the lack of proper definition of land categories, but also the digitization process. Fortunately, the easy and free access to digitized versions of historical maps remedies several of these issues. Today’s access to a lager and digital source material related to the historical maps, therefore, provides a basis for studying the historical maps and related survey history. The article provides a number of examples on how the digitized maps constitutes an important source material to investigate everything from the mapping practices of the Danish General Staff in the 19th century to Soviet military maps from the 20th century.</p> Stig Svenningsen Copyright (c) 2021 Stig Svenningsen 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 15 15 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6586 Cultivation and fishing. Arnager fishing village, a common-field system on Bornholm? <p>In the southwestern part of the Danish island of Bornholm we find a small fishing community called Arnager. The arable fields belonging to fishing communities of this type were usually not organized in an open field system (Danish dyrkningsfællesskab), with an arrangement of scattered land strips communally regulated but privately owned – least of all on Bornholm where no such systems are known to have existed, not even in arable-dominated villages. Nevertheless, Arnager appears like a regular open-field-system community on the first cadastral map, known as the 'original-1-map'. In order to investigate whether Arnager can be characterized as a village with an open field system or not, the information drawn from the original-1-map is compared to information from other maps available such as modern LiDAR maps as well as written sources. Furthermore, the quality of the soil and the local place names are taken into consideration in order to assess whether Arnager can in fact be seen as having been a fishing community with an open field system. An examination of the abovementioned sources concludes that a community of shared resources did in fact exist in Arnager in the 19th century, but clear evidence is lacking in respect to judge whether Arnager can be seen as a regular open field system as known from the rest of Denmark further back in time.</p> Anders Pihl Copyright (c) 2021 Anders Pihl 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 16 16 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6587 The use of maps in genealogical research <p>Where family-related property history used to be an arduous and time-consuming task, recent years’ mass digitization of historical archives from Danish cultural institutions has made it relatively easy to locate properties that were once in the possession of a certain family, and to uncover their history. Central sources for this work are the historical maps, which today are online at the Danish Geodata Agency’s <em>Historiske kort på nettet,</em> and especially the so-called <em>Original-1 maps</em>. These were drawn up at the cadaster 1806-1822, and they provide a unique link between the personal names of the head of a family and the cadastral number of this family’s property. With specific examples from the parish of Værløse in the old county of Copenhagen, the author shows how this link between the names of the head of family, cadastral numbers and the properties’ exact location, makes it possible to retrieve other property history data from other historical maps, locate historical aerial photos of the properties, and uncover their ownership history. The article also shows how the genealogy-related property history in combination with traditional genealogical research can reveal unprecedented details of and provide unique insights into family history.</p> Mette Colding Dahl Copyright (c) 2021 Mette Colding Dahl 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6680 The Norwegian historical cadasters <p>Norway was quick off the mark with digitization of its basic national source materials, including key cadastral records such as the 1886-cadastre and the cadastral draft of 1950 – both which have been searchable online since the late 1990s. However, since then, only the 1838-cadastre has been added to the portfolio of online and searchable cadastres. In addition, none of the Norwegian cadastres have so far been viewed in an interrelated context. No attempt has so far been made with linking cadastres, neither for the historical cadastres in between nor with the current Norwegian cadastre. Moreover, a spatial-temporal historical cadastre has never even been considered as a research dataset either. This is largely due to factors such as the structure of the cadastre and the peculiar time-dynamic cadastral code key. As the Norwegian cadastral records constitute a unique source for the exploration of the temporal development of land and estate in Norway, this article presents the advances in linking and geocoding historical cadastral records. As digitally linked and georeferenced historical registers gradually become available, the appreciation of their value as a research resource will increase. Then, hopefully, the interest in historical geography and retrogressive methods in historical-demographic research will be strengthened in Norway.</p> Peder Gammeltoft Copyright (c) 2021 Peder Gammeltoft 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 10 10 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6588 The use of historical maps in the supervision of protected monuments <p>Historical maps have earlier proven to be a good supplement to the location of protected ancient sites andmonuments in Denmark. However, as lidar-maps are improving, and location-data have become moreprecise, historial maps are now rarely used for this purpose anymore. Nonetheless, some historical maps thatshow details of, for instance, a fortress or a canal, are still a great source when “new” protected sites are tobe described.Furthermore, historical maps can be used in combination with the lidar-maps in search for undocumentedancient monuments that still exist. It is only when it comes to smaller monuments, which are often omittedfrom historical maps that lidar-maps are better.When it comes to age-determination of earthen-and stone walls, historical maps are the sole source.Combined with lidar-maps, it is possible to trace the field boundaries back in time, using different sets ofhistorical land register-maps as well as ordinary topographic historical maps in the highest scale. With thisinformation, it is possible to extract different layers of walls, depending on the time they were built, which inturn can be used to determine which walls should be protected.</p> Steen Thrane Frydenlund Jensen Copyright (c) 2021 Steen Thrane Frydenlund Jensen 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 24 24 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6589 Historical maps and online archival control. A retrospective study of Tractor Ole’s house <p>Historical maps are an indispensable source for examining, understanding and communicating which cultural environments and buildings in the city and in the open landscape ought to be preserved. Planning authorities and museums must work together to ensure conservation values for posterity in both the planning process and in the case of specific construction work permits. One part of this collaboration consists of the museum carrying out a so-called archival check of the municipality's development plans and construction permit applications, etc. Here maps constitute a very central source, applicable to both the screening process and to closer examination. This is illustrated in this article by a demolition case for Traktor Ole's house. Here it is shown how photos, map versions and geodata - including brand new ones - can support the museum's collaboration with the municipality with respect to physical planning.</p> Morten Stenak Copyright (c) 2021 Morten Stenak 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 17 17 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6590 The use of historical maps in landscape history and agricultural history <p>This paper deals with the use of historical maps in landscape history and agricultural history. The history of cultural landscapes cannot be studied thoroughly without the use of historical maps, and several examples are given, where the most detailed map series, the cadaster map (original-1-kort, 1:4000) from c. 1800, has been used, especially in a digital version. However, other maps have also been used, especially topographical maps, for more recent landscape studies. Within the field of agricultural history, the spatial focus is not necessarily essential. As a consequence, it does not have the same tradition for use of historical maps, neither for analyses nor illustrations. Still, in particular the treatment of older agricultural history, historical maps have been more widely used, and especially the era around the agricultural reforms is often illustrated by many contemporary maps, produced as a result of the enclosure reforms.</p> Per Grau Møller Copyright (c) 2021 Per Grau Møller 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 15 15 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6591 Ferries and landing sites on topographic maps <p>Denmark is a country with fiords, sounds, bays and more than 200 islands, many of which have been inhabited. This has resulted in transport by boats from prehistoric time. This article presents instructions and specifications used by topographers 1877-1998 for mapping in 1:20 000 and 1:25 000. In Topographiske Kaartsignaturer (Topograpic Map Symbols) from 1831 are three different types of symbols for ferries and a symbol for landing place. In Ledetraad i Detailmaaling (Guide to Mapping) from 1877 are descriptions of topographic elements that must be noted at the measuring and revisions of the maps. The instructions did not change for the topic’s ferries and landing places in the period 1877-1967. From 1968, less information was about ferries and landing places had to be noted during fieldwork. Landing places disappears form the instructions in 1977. As examples are shown sections of maps depicting the ferries at Udbyhøj and Jegindø-Mors and of landings places from maps covering Vigsø and Lild Strand.<br />The information the topographers brought home was related to the ferry’s ownership and duty to transportation. There was no distinction between passenger ferries, car ferries, train ferries and route boats. If information about this is needed, the map book Danmark 1:200 000 issued from 1931 gives the best ferry information available on maps. The book is revised 15 times 1931-1958. From 1961, a new issue has appeared nearly every year. This article shows sections of map pages from different years.<br />The conclusion is that the maps in 1:20 000 and 1:25 0000 shows ferries, but not ferry routes. With a revision cycles of 10-30 years it is impossible to see when a ferry was established or discontinued. This is, however, shown in the map books in 1:200 000, often with revisions and information about different ferry types.</p> Peter Michaelsen Copyright (c) 2021 Peter Michaelsen 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 21 21 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6592 Historical maps as archaeological source. Some experiences from Western Jutland <p>This paper presents ways in which historical maps can be implemented in archaeological research, and what can be achieved by doing so. The initial chapter focuses on the practical aspects of map georeferencing, and a best practice is suggested that allows the production of precise digital mosaics. Map searches for prehistoric monuments is the obvious starting point for the archaeologist. By far the most common group of monuments is burial mounds dating to the Neolithic or Bronze Age. As demonstrated, results can be significant and add substantially to the archaeological record. Another recommended use is to vectorize the map theme of land use. An example study is presented in which the possible regression of the historical landscape on basis of data set derived from historical maps. Finally, cases are demonstrated in which the historical maps have helped solving questions in field archaeology as well as aerial archaeology.</p> Esben Schlosser Mauritsen Copyright (c) 2021 Esben Schlosser Mauritsen 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 18 18 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6593 Maps as source for place-names in Denmark. The use of historical maps in Danish toponomastics <p>Cartographical sources have played a central role in Danish place-name studies since the mid-nineteenth century. This holds true both in terms of providing historical spellings of the names as well as in locating the named settlements and physical features. Cartographical sources are especially valuable when a settlement no longer exists or when the name of a landscape feature is no longer in use. In some cases, cartographical studies of the location of a certain feature have been used to explain the etymology of the name, based on the nature of the physical landscape in which it is situated. As a source for historical spellings of place-names, maps have been considered particularly important for ’names of individual farmsteads and natural features, which are usually not named in written sources before the mid-seventeenth century. Likewise, historical maps have been an important source for all place-names attached to settlements established in post-medieval times. This can be seen in the catalogues of Danmarks Stednavne (‘Place-Names of Denmark’), where the lists of noted spellings for each name contain more cartographical references for minor and younger place-names than for older settlement names sufficiently accounted for in medieval textual sources. On a nationwide basis, Videnskabernes Selskabs kort (‘Maps of the Academy of Sciences’) from 1768–1825 (and, in more recent times, the more detailed draft maps for this series from 1762–1809) have constituted a standard cartographical source for most place-names, along with the enclosure maps (udskiftningskort) from 1780–1810, the topographic maps made by the General Staff (høje målebordsblade) from 1842–1899, and present-day topographic maps. Thus, maps have been used frequently in place-name studies both as source for historical spellings, to explain the original meaning of a place-name, and to pinpoint the location of deserted settlements and other archaeologically interesting locations.</p> Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig Jakobsen Copyright (c) 2021 Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig Jakobsen 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 13 13 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6594 The use of historical aerial images from Greenland in climate research <p>The Greenland Ice Sheet and its peripheral glaciers are being monitored closely to understand their response to climate change and to determine the contribution to global sea level rise from melting and calving processes. Automated weather and GPS stations on the ice provide a continuous stream of information on e.g. insolation, air temperature, precipitation, and elevation change, whilst the big picture is provided by remote sensing from satellites and aircraft. The modern era of remote sensing of the ice masses in Greenland began in the early 1990’s using primarily satellite-based radar altimetry, but also laser altimetry from aircraft. From the <em>c.</em> 224,000 aerial photos of Greenland found in the archive of the Agency for Data Supply and Efficiency (SDFE), it is possible to extend the record of direct observations back to the early 1930’s.</p> <p>In 2008 a group of researchers at the Natural History Museum of Denmark (NHM) began working with the historical aerial photos at SDFE. The work was made possible by the recent digitization of the index maps and other information needed to use the photos. The applied techniques, the information that can be retrieved about the dynamic landscape of Greenland from aerial photos, and the results are presented, with weight on the research carried out at the NHM.</p> Niels Jákup Korsgaard Copyright (c) 2021 Niels Jákup Korsgaard 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 18 18 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6679 Quantifying the impact of human land use on Store Vildmose based on historical maps <p>Bogs represent the largest peat areas in Denmark, and an investigation of these areas can shed light on thehuman influence of the Danish peat soils.We have studied the human influence at Store Vildmose and haveused the land use information from topographical maps of different age, elevation information from historicalmanuscript maps ‘bymålingerne’, a modern LiDAR-based elevation model as well as drilling data that holdsinformation on peat depth.We have registered the land use of 1880, 1935 and 1988, digitized around 13.000 point-observations withinthe study area from historical manuscript maps, used the LiDAR-based elevation model from 2008 as well as329 drillings through the peat from 2010.The results show that the bog in some areas has been more than five meters deep, but in some areas, it isalmost completely gone. In total 117.500.000 m3 peat has disappeared. That corresponds to 3 million.truckloads or ca. 170 truckloads of peat every day for 90 years. What has taken more than 2000 years tobuild, man has removed within 80 years with great consequences for climate and environment</p> Mogens Humlekrog Greve Mette Balslev Greve Sonja Li Tind Copyright (c) 2021 Mogens Humlekrog Greve, Mette Balslev Greve, Sonja Li Tind 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 9 9 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6595 Printed on a drawing. A newly found volume of 17th century fortress maps <p>In the Library of the Historical Research Institute of the German Army in Potsdam the oldest manuscript is acollection of maps of fortified cities and places in Europe, made in 1693 by the military Engineer ChristophHeer for the Elector Johann Georg IV of Saxony. He was to be impressed by the exquisite representation of the drawings, so that Heer became an engagement by the military academy in Dresden. The technique isunique with all texts pressed into the paper with a stamp with loose types. Heer succeeded and lived inDresden until his death in 1701. Among the over 200 maps in the manuscript Scandinavia (including theGerman territories of the Danish Monarchy) is represented with 39 maps, all of which can be traced back tothe 1660s, when Heer did his years of apprenticeship in Copenhagen and Fredericia. His teachers were histwo German born cousins, Georg and Gottfried Hoffmann, who themselves were engineers and finemapmakers. The special technique is also seen in Danish maps from this period, but not before or after thepresence of Heer in Denmark (1658-1669/70). Heer himself used the technique in the years inbetween. Hemight be the inventor of this special way of “printing” a map. The places presented in the volume is an echoof the military collection of maps from his years in Denmark.</p> Bjørn Westerbeek Dahl Copyright (c) 2021 Bjørn Westerbeek Dahl 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 23 23 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6596 Old and new forest areas in Denmark <p>This article presents a number of sources and methods to illustrate historical geography of forests from the end of the 18th century until today – as well as a number of related issues. The primary source is historical maps, as they provide better information about geography than, for example, written records and forest statistics. The outset are two case studies, Lynge-Eskilstrup in Zealand and Kokborg in Central Jutland and a nationwide analysis.<br />The methods and sources presented, provide good opportunities to attain knowledge about the size and distribution of forests over time. However, there are also a number of issues. The main challenge is that the forests of the late 18th century with scattered trees as well as enclaves with other land uses occasionally had a different character than the very rational and rigorously managed forests that still dominate today. The development today towards natural forests with grazing cattle as well as recreational forests is moving somewhat in the direction of a return to the conditions in the historic forests. Nonetheless, the economically viable forest that is still the norm today.<br />The two studies of Lynge-Eskilstrup and Kokborg show how mixed forest types with deciduous forest, grazing forests and scrub forests were partly protected and partly cleared/cultivated in the wake of the agrarian reforms. However, it was a lengthy process, and still in the second half of the 19th century, remnants of scrub forests and scattered trees could be found, before these too disappeared and/or were fenced off for forestry. By then, the "streamlining" of the landscape types was largely completed, and the period from the last part of the 19th century onwards is characterized by the plantation of coniferous forests, primarily in West and North Jutland.<br />Due to the method and available digital sources, the area shares in the nationwide analysis must be approached with the reservations described. However, the regional patterns seen in Denmark will not move significantly by even detailed analyzes. The hilly moraine areas underwent a development from around 1800, where mixed forests were largely divided into protected forest areas with a focus on forestry, and partly cleared for traditional farming. Thereafter, from the latter half of the 19th century, a moderate afforestation took place, but it was especially in the sandy and heath-dominated areas that saw the greatest degree of afforestation.</p> Peder Dam Copyright (c) 2021 Peder Dam 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 20 38 28 28 10.5278/ojs.perspektiv.v20i38.6597