International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management <p>The IJSEPM is an international interdisciplinary journal in Sustainable Energy Planning and Management combining engineering and social science within Energy System Analysis, Feasibility Studies and Public Regulation.<br><br>The journal focuses on these three areas:</p> <p>- Energy System analysis including theories, methodologies, data handling and software tools as well as specific scenarios, models and analyses at local, regional, country and global level.</p> <p>- Economics, Socio economics and Feasibility studies including theories and methodologies of institutional economics as well as specific feasibility studies and analyses.</p> <p>- Public Regulation and management including theories and methodologies as well as specific analyses and proposals in the light of the implementation and transition into sustainable energy systems.</p> <p>Our target scale is&nbsp;</p> <p>IJSEPM is approved by the Norwegian bibliometric&nbsp;<a href=";bibsys=false&amp;request_locale=en">Kanalregister</a>&nbsp;as well as its Danish counterpart&nbsp;<a href="">BFI</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>The journal is registered/indexed in/by&nbsp;<a href=";sort=cp-f&amp;src=s&amp;st1=journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management&amp;nlo=&amp;nlr=&amp;nls=&amp;sid=AC1664C401CEF186228B39264A2A35D7.wsnAw8kcdt7IPYLO0V48gA%3a10&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=b&amp;sl=63&amp;s=SRCTITLE%28journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management%29&amp;ss=cp-f&amp;ps=r-f&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;origin=resultslist&amp;zone=resultslist">Scopus</a>&nbsp;(Press link to see all published articles in IJSEPM), &nbsp;<a href="">Ulrichs Web</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Directory of Open-Access Journals</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Sherpa/Romeo</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="">DataCite</a></p> en-US International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2246-2929 <p><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/admin/cc_88.png" alt=""></a></p> <p>Articles published in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management&nbsp;are following the license&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)</a></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License: Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs (by-nc-nd). Further information about&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons</a></p> <p>Authors can archive post-print&nbsp;(final draft post-refereering) on personal websites or institutional repositories under these conditions:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Publishers version cannot be stored elsewhere but on publishers homepage</li> <li class="show">Published source must be acknowledged</li> <li class="show">Must link to publisher version</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Editorial - International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Volume 23 <p>This editorial introduces the 23<sup>rd</sup> volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. This volume presents research on the robustness of energy modelling, firstly through an assessment of the accuracy of heat demand estimations compared to measured data, followed by an examination of assessment of the robustness of energy modelling relative to the results’ dependency on input time series. Subsequently, challenges to the integration of renewable energy are reviewed, followed by a case from Iran investigating a 100% renewable energy system for desalination. Finally, the issues of technology prioritization for energy efficiency purposes and the development of energy indicators are tackled.</p> Rasmus Magni Johannsen Poul Alberg Østergaard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 23 10.5278/ijsepm.3466 On the impact of probabilistic weather data on the economically optimal design of renewable energy systems – a case study on La Gomera island <p>&nbsp;Renewable energy and storage systems are widely discussed to minimise the impact of global warming. In addition to the temporal resolution of simulation tools, also the chosen input data might have a strong impact on the performance of renewable energy systems, and energy storage systems in particular. This study analyses the impact of probabilistic weather data on the design of renewable energy systems. The main objective is hereby the determination of the robustness of a recently state-of-the-art design process of a 100% renewable energy and storage system with varying probabilistic input data. The island of La Gomera, Canary Islands, is taken as a case study. Although all analysed systems show some variance in their results, the combination of vehicle-to-grid and power-to-hydrogen shows the best economic performance. Hereby, small island energy systems depending heavily on wind energy show higher variations than those with high shares of solar energy. This analysis illustrates clearly that the choice of one historical reference year is not suitable to determine the expected performance of an energy system. To learn about their sensitivity, synthetic probabilistic inputs as applied in this study are a good way to determine both the expected mean values and their variance.</p> Henning Meschede Jens Hesselbach Michael Child Christian Breyer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 23 10.5278/ijsepm.3142 Heat atlas accuracy compared to metered data <p>This study investigates the accuracy of the modelled heat demand in a heat atlas compared to metered data. The Danish heat atlas is compared to metered heat demand values from more than 1 million buildings. The calculated heat demands of single buildings in the heat atlas are compared to metered data of the actual buildings. Statistical analysis is applied to the two datasets, to investigate how well the heat atlas predicts the actual heat consumption and how accurate it is for different sized groups of buildings and groups consisting of different building types. The study results in a higher certainty and better knowledge of the accuracy of the results. In this way, the utilization of the tool in actual planning for the Danish heating sector is improved. Furthermore, by identifying in which areas or building types the heat atlas is lacking accuracy it is possible to consider this in the results of calculations using the tool. The results indicate that the estimates of the heat atlas mainly can be considered valid for single-family buildings, but for other categories, there are larger uncertainties and thus the heat atlas should be used with more caution in those areas. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Lars Grundahl Steffen Nielsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 23 10.5278/ijsepm.3174 Securing future water supply for Iran through 100% renewable energy powered desalination <p>Iran is the 17<sup>th</sup> most populated country in the world with several regions facing high or extremely high water stress. It is estimated that half the population live in regions with 30% of Iran’s freshwater resources. The combination of climate change, increasing water demand and mismanagement of water resources is forecasted to worsen the situation. This paper shows how the future water demand of Iran can be secured through seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants powered by 100% renewable energy systems (RES), at a cost level competitive with that of current SWRO plants powered by fossil plants in Iran. The optimal hybrid RES for Iran is found to be a combination of solar photovoltaics (PV) fixed-tilted, PV single-axis tracking, Wind, Battery and Power-to-Gas (PtG) plants. The levelised cost of water (LCOW) is found to lie between 1.0 €/m<sup>3</sup> – 3.5 €/m<sup>3</sup>, depending on renewable resource availability and water transportation costs.</p> Upeksha Caldera Dmitrii Bogdanov Mahdi Fasihi Arman Aghahosseini Christian Breyer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 23 10.5278/ijsepm.3305 A multiobjective optimization approach to support end-use energy efficiency policy design – the case-study of India <p>We combine the use of the Economic Input-Output Lifecycle assessment with multiobjective interval portfolio theory to arrive at two model formulations which can support public decision-makers on the design of programs to promote the investment on energy efficient technologies. The objective functions considered in each model are the maximization of the savings to investment ratio and the maximization of the minimum deviation of greenhouse gas avoided emissions/energy savings of the portfolio over its lifetime from the expected greenhouse gas emitted/energy embodied in the manufacture of its components, as a proxy of return and risk minimization, respectively. The first and second formulations might be more suitable for countries with higher and lower emission factors regarding their electricity mix, respectively. In order to ensure a certain diversification level of the technologies to be subsidized, constraints are imposed on the maximal amount assigned to the energy efficient technologies under consideration, also assuring a given energy payback time/greenhouse gas payback time. Finally, conservative (leading to a lower number of subsidized devices), aggressive (leading to a higher number of subsidized devices) and combined strategies are taken into consideration in the computation of the efficient portfolio solutions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Multiobjective portfolio theory, Interval Programming, Energy efficient technologies, Economic Input-Output Lifecycle Assessment, Energy payback time, Greenhouse gas payback time</p> Vivek Kumar Singh Carla Oliveira Henriques António Gomes Martins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 23 10.5278/ijsepm.2408 A developed Indicator for energy performance benchmarking: Energy Use and Performance Indicator (EUPI) <p>As key elements of energy planning, ISO 50001 recommended inter alia identifying appropriate indicators to monitor and measure energy performance. Benchmarking can be a helpful tool to establish energy efficiency or performance indicators. While we agree that is hard to get an absolutely universal indicator; it is however possible to expand the area of cases covered or improve its characteristics such as accuracy, representativeness and simplicity. In this paper, we developed the “Energy use and performance indicator” (EUPI) to enhance the range of models of indicators dedicated to the engineering field. The systems targeted are low and middle level systems of the energy indicators pyramid. We built the proposed indicator based on specific characteristics: process decomposition-oriented, increasing when energy consumption decreases, dimensionless, with limited threshold value to 1. Consequently, the indicator provides many advantages in comparison to simple metrics and complex indicators such as: direct detection of energy use failure processes, creating interdependence between benchmarked systems scores, no need for data history to start benchmarking of a multisystem. EUPI can be implemented as an integral part of many energy management or energy efficiency standards, methodologies or tools such as EN 16231:2012 and ISO 50001:2018. In last section, we calculate the indicator for 2 central sterile service departments of 2 university hospitals in Morocco to show its potential and operating mode.</p> Kamal JEMMAD Abdelhamid HMIDAT Abdallah SAAD ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 23 10.5278/ijsepm.3383 An ab initio issues on renewable energy system integration to grid <p>With the introduction of new technologies such as Renewable Energy Resources (RER), Energy Storage Systems (ESS), Smart Grid technologies, Micro-Grid technologies, Distributed Generation (DG), etc., in the generation, transmission and distribution sectors, slowly but surely the entire power system scenario is changing, and it is up to the power system planners, researchers, regulators, operators and policy-makers to ensure that the power system adapts to the changes as smoothly as possible; which is easier said than done. With change comes the unknown (issues and challenges) and unless a majority of these unknowns are identified, analyzed and addressed properly, the system cannot achieve its maximum potential. The proper management, operation and integration of renewable and alternate sources of energy to existing grid is one of the promising ventures to increase the capacity of grid and at the same time make the grid more eco-friendly. This paper presents a review of the challenges and issues associated with renewable energy integration to grid and some of the existing techniques that are in use to address these issues. In order to make this review paper as detailed as possible, we have tried to identify the many issues and their corresponding solutions as much as possible.<br> </p> DIPU SARKAR Yanrenthung Odyuo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-24 2019-09-24 23 10.5278/ijsepm.2802