International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management <p>The IJSEPM is an international interdisciplinary journal in Sustainable Energy Planning and Management combining engineering and social science within Energy System Analysis, Feasibility Studies and Public Regulation.<br><br>The journal focuses on:</p> <p>- <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica',sans-serif; color: #333333;">Energy System analysis of the transition to sustainable energy systems. This includes specific scenarios, models and analyses at local, regional, country and global level as well as studies of theories, methodologies, and software tools used in such transition analyses.</span></p> <p>- Economics, Socio economics and Feasibility studies including theories and methodologies of institutional economics as well as specific feasibility studies and analyses of the transition to sustainable energy systems.</p> <p>- Public Regulation and management including theories and methodologies as well as specific analyses and proposals in the light of the implementation and transition into sustainable energy systems.</p> <p>IJSEPM is approved by the Finish bibliometric <a href=";konferenssilyh=&amp;issn=&amp;tyyppi=kaikki&amp;kieli=&amp;maa=&amp;wos=&amp;scopus=&amp;nappi=S%C3%B6k">Publication Forum</a>, the Norwegian bibliometric <a href=";bibsys=false&amp;request_locale=en">Kanalregister</a> as well as the Danish&nbsp; <a href="">BFI</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>The journal is registered/indexed in/by&nbsp;<a href=";sort=cp-f&amp;src=s&amp;st1=journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management&amp;nlo=&amp;nlr=&amp;nls=&amp;sid=AC1664C401CEF186228B39264A2A35D7.wsnAw8kcdt7IPYLO0V48gA%3a10&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=b&amp;sl=63&amp;s=SRCTITLE%28journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management%29&amp;ss=cp-f&amp;ps=r-f&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;origin=resultslist&amp;zone=resultslist">Scopus</a>&nbsp;(Press link to see all published articles in IJSEPM), &nbsp;<a href="">Ulrichs Web</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Directory of Open-Access Journals</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Sherpa/Romeo</a> and <a href="">DataCite</a></p> <p>Published by <a href="">Aalborg University Press.</a></p> Aalborg University Press en-US International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2246-2929 <p><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/admin/cc_88.png" alt=""></a></p> <p>Articles published in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management&nbsp;are following the license&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)</a></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License: Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs (by-nc-nd). Further information about&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons</a></p> <p>Authors can archive post-print&nbsp;(final draft post-refereering) on personal websites or institutional repositories under these conditions:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Publishers version cannot be stored elsewhere but on publishers homepage</li> <li class="show">Published source must be acknowledged</li> <li class="show">Must link to publisher version</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sustainable Development using renewable energy systems <div>This editorial introduces the main findings from the 29th&nbsp;Volume of the International Journal of&nbsp;Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The issue includes both contributions to the 2019&nbsp;Sustainable Development of Energy Water and Environmental Systems&nbsp;conference and ordinary&nbsp;journal submissions. In either case, the research is centred on sustainable development using&nbsp;renewable energy systems – with particular attention to technology assessment, pricing &amp;&nbsp;regulation and systems analyses. Case studies and model development from Austria, Cape Verde,&nbsp;Columbia, and Iran are presented – with varying focal points. Different drive trains for the&nbsp;electrification of the transportation sector are assessed. Lastly, pricing regimes for evolving&nbsp;district heating systems as well as consumer involvement in 4th generation district heating and&nbsp;social factors for implementing building energy conservation policy are considered</div> Poul Alberg Østergaard Rasmus Magni Johannsen Neven Duic Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 29 1 6 10.5278/ijsepm.4302 Modelling, designing and operation of grid-based multi-energy systems <p>Two main strategies should be implemented to decarbonise the energy sector: substituting fossil fuels with renewable energies, and increasing system efficiency. Both strategies pose challenges for today's energy systems and their operators, because renewable energy is mainly decentralized, not always predictable, and introduces a degree of volatility into grids. Multi-energy systems, which incorporate multiple energy sectors, allow flexibility options to be used across energy carriers and thus further increase system flexibility. In addition, these multi-energy systems can also improve the overall energy efficiency. They enable cascaded energy use and allow for seasonal storage between different energy carriers. A comprehensive system modelling framework should consider all profound interactions between relevant system control variables. The aim of this proposed paper is to show the correlation between major aspects of grid based MES and how they can be combined in a system modelling framework.</p> Thomas Kienberger Anna Traupmann Christoph Sejkora Lukas Kriechbaum Matthias Greiml Benjamin Böckl Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 29 7 24 10.5278/ijsepm.3598 Planning for a 100% renewable energy system for the Santiago Island, Cape Verde <p>Ensuring the supply of affordable energy, improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are some of the priorities of the governments of several countries. The pursuit of these energy goals has triggered interest in the exploration and usage of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), which can be particularly appropriate for island systems as is the case of Cape Verde. This work proposes a generation expansion planning model for Cape Verde considering a 20 years’ period. Different scenarios were analysed, each one representing a possible RES contribution for electricity production, reaching a 100% RES share. The results demonstrate that the increase of the RES in the system will lead to an increase of the total cost of energy. However, both CO2 emissions and external energy dependency of the country significantly decrease. The seasonality of the RES resources, and in particular of wind power is shown to be one of the most important challenges for the effective uptake of such a renewable power system. While the proposed model allowed already to present some useful scenarios, it becomes also evident the need to expand the analysis, and the paper concludes with directions for future research.</p> Paula Varandas Ferreira Angela Lopes Géremi Gilson Dranka Jorge Cunha Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 29 25 40 10.5278/ijsepm.3603 A technology evaluation method for assessing the potential contribution of energy technologies to decarbonisation of the Italian production system <p>A methodology focused on technology evaluation is proposed to give a footprint of the development potential of energy technologies in Italy. The approach focuses on the impact on climate, the potential in terms of R&amp;D, the competitiveness of Italian companies and their diffusion on the territory. A reference Catalogue was realised in the framework &nbsp;of the ‘Technical Board on Decarbonisation of the Economy’, established by the Italian Presidency of the Council of Ministers. 36 datasheets, containing quantitative and qualitative information on Technology Readiness Level (TRL), efficiency, environmental and economic impacts and policy aspects were filled by 70 experts for each technology. Some data were extracted from the Catalogue - TRL, CO<sub>2</sub> emissions, developers, and centres of excellence - and further analysed with other information relating to the Italian production and innovation system collected from the National Enterprise Registry (ASIA). Companies and research centres&nbsp; are involved in development of technologies based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and Energy Storage (ES) with different levels of TRL and high potential for mitigating effects on climate. However, their distribution shows a rather inhomogeneous presence at territorial level. This evaluation provided useful elements to elaborate policy measures to support the diffusion of energy technologies.</p> Elena De Luca alessandro zini oscar gaetano coletta maria grazia oteri laura gaetana giuffrida giorgio graditi Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 29 41 56 10.5278/ijsepm.4433 Comparative Economic Analysis for Different Types of Electric Vehicles <p>This study is dedicated to comparing the levelized operating costs of various types of power units and energy carriers for electric vehicles: battery systems, hydrogen-air fuel cells, and aluminum-air electrochemical generators. The operating cost considers the power unit itself, energy carrier, and associated charging infrastructure. Each electric vehicle type was calculated in two versions: a passenger electric car and a light duty commercial truck. It is shown that the most cost effective power unit is an aluminum-air generator. Its levelized operating cost is 1.5–2 times lower toward a battery system and 3–4 times lower toward fuel cells. The advantage of aluminum as energy carrier is the low cost and simple design of the corresponding power unit and charging infrastructure compared to those for battery and hydrogen power units. Aluminum recycling is key to its efficient use, this concept may become competitive in the aluminum-producing countries.</p> Evgeny Buzoverov Andrey Zhuk Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 29 57 68 10.5278/ijsepm.3831 Methodology to Assess the Implementation of Solar Power Projects in Rural Areas Using AHP: a Case Study of Colombia <p>Selection of a location for a solar power plant is critical due to conflicting objectives7 in energy planning. The main objective of this study is to apply a methodology based on8 an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), in order to assess potential locations of solar power9 projects in Colombia. This study takes into consideration technical-economic, social, and10 environmental-risk criteria based on data from the National Survey on Living Conditions in11 Colombia (NSLCC) and The Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Stud-12 ies (IDEAM). Eight departments were chosen representing different regions of the country,13 with differing levels of irradiation as well as distinct social and cultural living conditions. The14 methodology presented here can be used as a design tool for energy policy by utilities com-15 panies, providers, investors and academic researchers in the selection of locations for solar16 power projects. The results show the selection of alternatives using the AHP methodology.</p> Jhon Jairo Perez Gelves Guillermo Andrés Diaz Florez Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 29 69 78 10.5278/ijsepm.3592 Impact of One- and Two-axis Solar Tracking on Techno-Economic Viability of On-Grid PV Systems: Case of Burnoye-1, Kazakhstan <p>Kazakhstan is currently committed to develop its renewable energy resources. In 2012, the government introduced a low-carbon energy strategy to reduce the production of air pollutants, including anthropogenic CO<sub>2e</sub>, and to increase the share of clean energy up to 50% of total consumption by 2050. As a contribution to this strategy, this paper presents a comparison in techno-economic performance of three scenarios. The differentiation will be between currently implemented fixed-slope on-grid PV power plants in Kazakhstan and proxy similar solar parks using one- or two-axis solar tracking systems. This paper aims to determine to what extent the more effective, but more expensive tracking systems might be a suitable standard in future PV power stations in the country. For this purpose, the existent fixed-slope 50 MWp Burnoye-1 commercial solar power plant located in Jambyl region, Kazakhstan, is used as a benchmark. As expected, solar panels with tracking systems produce more electricity year-round compared to those with fixed slopes. In comparison, one- and two-axis tracking systems led almost to the same amount of electricity export to the grid. Furthermore, despite the proxy PV power stations with one- and two-axis tracking technology could reduce around 10 ktCO<sub>2e</sub> emissions per year. This 25 to 29% and 33 to 33% ratio of extra-cost to extra-energy production, respectively, made both tracking scenarios not economically competitive compared to fixed panels. Nevertheless, if a tracking system has to be considered to further reduce GHG emissions and add extra annual electricity generation using current installed capacity of Burnoye-I, our results demonstrated that one-axis tracking should be preferred above two-axis system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nurgeldy Praliyev Kassym Zhunis Yeraly Kalel Dinara Dikhanbayeva Luis Rojas-Solórzano Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 29 79 90 10.5278/ijsepm.3665 Policy Framework for Iran to Attain 20% Share of Non-Fossil Fuel Power Plants in Iran’s Electricity Supply System by 2030 <p>This paper presents a comprehensive model on the expansion of non-fossil technology to evaluate the impact of increasing their share in Iran’s electricity supply system. This analytical approach is based on system dynamics (SD), with an emphasis on the expansion of non-fossil fuels in the supply side of this model. Four emerging electricity generation technologies of solar photovoltaics, wind turbines, expansion turbines, and hydro power are considered in the model, and the effect of electricity price on increasing the motivation of the owners of non-fossil fuel power plants to guarantee their 20% share is examined. The Iranian government has set a target of a 20% share of non-fossil fuel electricity generation by 2030, whose main result is reducing GHG emissions to achieve the targets pledged under the Paris Climate Accord. Therefore, we developed four scenarios with different expansions of non-fossil technologies in Iran’s electricity system to investigate the goal, though various barriers exist that must be addressed through effective policies in order to facilitate the expansion of non-fossil fuel power plants in the electricity supply system. The findings demonstrate that electricity price must be determined based on the costs of non-fossil technologies, as well as based on fossil fuel prices which are low in the current energy supply system. In conclusion, the Paris Climate Accord criteria is achieved with a 20% growth of non-fossil fuels and increasing electricity price to 920 IRR/kWh in 2030.</p> Ali Abbasi Godarzi Abbas Maleki Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 29 91 108 10.5278/ijsepm.5692 Reliability constrained planning and sensitivity analysis for Solar-Wind-Battery based Isolated Power System <p>Isolated power systems have emerged as a practical substitute to grid extension for electrification of remote areas. The environmental hazards associated with conventional sources of energy like diesel and coal has forced system planners to resort to renewable energy sources(RES) based technologies such as solar and wind. Increased penetration of RES can effectively cut down system operating costs but can create reliability issues owing to their unpredictable nature. The risk of lower reliability standards can significantly hamper utilization of these sources on large scale. Thus an effective backup system is needed in order to ensure reliability standards. The backup is provided either by diesel generators or energy storage systems.</p> <p>The intermittent nature and cost intensive structure of RES based DGs makes it essential to perform sensitivity analyses for optimal system planning. In this paper, reliability and cost based sizing of solar-wind-battery storage system has been carried out for an Isolated hybrid power system(IHPS). Sensitivity analyses are performed by studying the effect of addition/removal of RES based DGs and storage units on system reliability. Considering variable nature of solar and wind sources, modelling of solar irradiance, wind speed and generator availability has been done using appropriate probability density functions. Dual reliability indices have been used for determining system reliability. For solving optimal sizing problem, a stochastic optimization technique Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) has been employed. A new index termed as Incremental cost of reliability has been utilized in order to assess the additional investment required to improve reliability standards. Optimal sizing study in conjunction with sensitivity analyses facilitates a deeper insight into system planning.</p> Priyanka Paliwal Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 29 109 126 10.5278/ijsepm.4599 Review and experiences of price regulation regimes for district heating <p>Europe is facing a great technical and regulatory challenge in transitioning the energy supply from fossil fuels to sustainable renewables. Within the heating sector, the Heat Roadmap Europe studies has demonstrated large potentials and benefits from expanding district heating (DH) throughout the continent. However, as a monopoly structure, district heating grids require well thought-out regulatory regimes to be accepted by cities and consumers. Founded upon the approach of concrete institutional economics, this paper contributes to the literature on DH regulation by reviewing and describing regulatory experiences across Europe. The paper demonstrates that a wide range of regulatory mechanisms are available for implementing DH.</p> Ole Odgaard Søren Djørup Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 29 127 140 10.5278/ijsepm.3824 Consumer involvement in the transition to 4th generation district heating <p>In the transition towards 4th generation district heating (4GDH), supply and demand side measures have to be coordinated better than in previous generations of district heating (DH). Building’s heat demand has to be reduced, and heating installations as well as consumer behaviour have to be adapted so as to be compatible with and support lower network temperatures. It is therefore necessary to investigate and understand how consumers can be meaningfully and strategically included in the transition towards 4GDH. This paper provides a literature review of the consumer levels role in 4GDH in the transition towards 100% renewable energy systems. Current literature of 4GDH have been investigated to identify the connection and involvement of consumers in the transition. Even though consumers within the existing building mass have a large role in the transition in terms of heat savings and instalment of energy efficient technologies in the buildings are almost none of the scientific literature addressing how these actions should be implemented at consumer level. From the results of the analysis it is recommended that further research should investigate how to strengthen the coordination between supply and demand sides in order to secure the right initiatives are implemented in the right order.</p> Louise Krog Karl Sperling Michael Kvist Svangren Frede Hvelplund Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 29 141 152 10.5278/ijsepm.4627 Analysis of social inequality factors in implementation of building energy conservation policies using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process Methodology <p>Because residential buildings consume significant reserves of energy, they are among the largest contributors to climate change. Carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG)&nbsp;emissions from buildings have negatively impacted the environment. &nbsp;In response, institutions around the globe have issued policies and regulations to minimize climate change problems, and while these policies have succeeded to some extent, additional factors are present that need greater attention. Among these additional factors are social inequality and environmental injustice in society, both of which must be analysed thoroughly before solutions can be suggested. This research work seeks to examine these factors and their effects; we analyse the factors that cause social inequality and injustice and we correlate those factors to the implementation of energy policies. We then pursue how these actions have consequences in civil society. Results show that some 15 social inequality factors are omnipresent, but the top three include: i) the limited participation of women in environmental campaigns, ii) variances in the adoption of building energy regulations across the globe, and iii) ethnic/racial discrimination with regard to how environmental safety is prioritized. We analyse these factors through the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy methodology, and our results are statistically validated through sensitivity analysis and a consistency check.</p> Syed Shuibul Qarnain Muthuvel Sattanatha Bathrinath Sankaranarayanan Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 29 153 170 10.5278/ijsepm.3616