International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management <p>The IJSEPM is an international interdisciplinary journal in Sustainable Energy Planning and Management combining engineering and social science within Energy System Analysis, Feasibility Studies and Public Regulation.<br><br>The journal focuses on:</p> <p>- Energy System analysis of the transition to sustainable energy systems. This including theories, methodologies, data handling and software tools as well as specific scenarios, models and analyses at local, regional, country and global level.</p> <p>- Economics, Socio economics and Feasibility studies including theories and methodologies of institutional economics as well as specific feasibility studies and analyses of the transition to sustainable energy systems.</p> <p>- Public Regulation and management including theories and methodologies as well as specific analyses and proposals in the light of the implementation and transition into sustainable energy systems.</p> <p>IJSEPM is approved by the Norwegian bibliometric&nbsp;<a href=";bibsys=false&amp;request_locale=en">Kanalregister</a>&nbsp;as well as its Danish counterpart&nbsp;<a href="">BFI</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>The journal is registered/indexed in/by&nbsp;<a href=";sort=cp-f&amp;src=s&amp;st1=journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management&amp;nlo=&amp;nlr=&amp;nls=&amp;sid=AC1664C401CEF186228B39264A2A35D7.wsnAw8kcdt7IPYLO0V48gA%3a10&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=b&amp;sl=63&amp;s=SRCTITLE%28journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management%29&amp;ss=cp-f&amp;ps=r-f&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;origin=resultslist&amp;zone=resultslist">Scopus</a>&nbsp;(Press link to see all published articles in IJSEPM), &nbsp;<a href="">Ulrichs Web</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Directory of Open-Access Journals</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Sherpa/Romeo</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="">DataCite</a></p> Aalborg University Press en-US International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2246-2929 <p><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/admin/cc_88.png" alt=""></a></p> <p>Articles published in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management&nbsp;are following the license&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)</a></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License: Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs (by-nc-nd). Further information about&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons</a></p> <p>Authors can archive post-print&nbsp;(final draft post-refereering) on personal websites or institutional repositories under these conditions:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Publishers version cannot be stored elsewhere but on publishers homepage</li> <li class="show">Published source must be acknowledged</li> <li class="show">Must link to publisher version</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Title Page Poul Alberg Østergaard Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 25 Editorial - International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Volume 25 <p>This editorial introduces the 25th volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy&nbsp;Planning and Management. This volume presents research on low-temperature district heating in&nbsp;China, prospects for energy savings in Aalborg, Denmark, and impacts on heating systems,&nbsp;offshore wind power and electricity interconnection in the Baltic sea, integration of electricity&nbsp;markets in the United States, and finally the modelling of renewable energy systems both on the&nbsp;remote island of Bonaire and in Chile.</p> Rasmus Magni Johannsen Poul Alberg Østergaard Neven Duic Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 25 1 2 10.5278/ijsepm.3659 A temperature control strategy to achieve low-temperature district heating in North China <p>The data includes historical actual operating data of a District Heating System (DHS) in Tianjin and weather forecast data. The DHS operating data, which includes supply and return temperature from February 16, 2018, to March 12, 2018, is collected from a heat exchange station in Tianjin, China. The exchange station supplies heat for nearly 40 residential buildings in winter. The weather forecast data consists of outdoor temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and air quality index (AQI).</p> Yin Bai Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 25 3 12 10.5278/ijsepm.3392 Smart Energy Aalborg: Matching End-Use Heat Saving Measures and Heat Supply Costs to Achieve Least Cost Heat Supply <p>Energy efficiency improvements of buildings is widely recognized as an important part of reaching future sustainable energy systems, as these both reduce the need for energy and improve the efficiency of the heat supply. Finding the correct level of efficiency measures, depends on the type of measure, on the supply system typology as well as on the heat supply cost. As this information is often building-specific, most analyses related to energy efficiency in buildings are carried out in relation to specific renovation projects, while energy plans for larger areas make crude assumptions regarding levels of savings and costs. This article aims at improving the latter, by using a detailed heat atlas in combination with specific marginal energy renovation costs, in a study of Aalborg Municipality in Denmark. &nbsp;In the analysis, all buildings in the municipality are mapped at building level and both the marginal energy efficiency measure costs and the marginal heat supply costs are identified. The buildings are then sorted by their supply type, and marginal costs curves on supply and savings are compared to determine the feasible level of efficiency measures in each building. The results show that both the building type and the supply costs have a large influence on the feasible measures. Furthermore, the results show that a demand reduction of 30% in district heating areas, 35% for buildings with heat pumps and 37% for buildings with oil boilers, for the examined buildings, is socio economically feasible in a Business as Usual 2050 Aalborg Municipality scenario.</p> Steffen Nielsen Jakob Zinck Thellufsen Peter Sorknæs Søren Roth Djørup Karl Sperling Poul Alberg Østergaard Henrik Lund Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 25 13 32 10.5278/ijsepm.3398 Investing in meshed offshore grids in the Baltic Sea: catching up with the regulatory gap <p>The connection of cables from offshore wind parks to interconnection lines is receiving growing attention in Europe as a way to minimise the costs of laying down future offshore transmission grids in a wind-heavy system. Although important technical breakthroughs are enabling transmission system operators to engage in such hybrid forms of architecture, substantial regulatory challenges and uncertainties over the legal definition of the new architecture are preventing progress.</p> <p>Anchored in current European legal frameworks and targets, this paper critically reviews the national framework conditions that treat the development of transmission grids as regulated assets, focusing on the distribution of connection costs, the access grid tariff and the investment incentives faced by transmission system operators (TSOs) in recovering costs. The paper develops an ideal regulatory framework and compares it to the current regulations in countries around the Baltic Sea in order to assess their suitability for supporting Meshed Offshore Grids (MOGs).</p> <p>The results of this paper highlight the heterogeneity of national regulatory frameworks and the deviations from our recommendations. It is found that Germany lives up to the recommendations best, followed by Denmark, which suggests they have the regulatory potential to pioneer a MOG project in the Baltic Sea region. This is followed by consideration of two clusters of countries defined by their proximity to the ideal framework, assuming a three-step development of MOGs, and following ever more progressive regulatory adjustments. The results of the paper will provide policy-makers with indications for how to take action in order to facilitate offshore hybrid grid investments and improve the inclusion of the regulatory challenges in technical-economic assessments.</p> Claire Marie Bergaentzlé Lise Lotte Pade Lauge Truels Larsen Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 25 33 44 10.5278/ijsepm.3372 Integrating energy markets: Implications of increasing electricity trade on prices and emissions in the western United States <p>This paper presents empirically-estimated average hourly relationships between regional electricity trade in the western United States (U.S.) and prices, emissions, and generation from 2015 through 2018. Consistent with economic theory, the analysis finds a negative relationship between electricity price in California and regional trade, conditional on local demand. Each 1 gigawatt-hour (GWh) increase in California electricity imports is associated with an average $0.15 per megawatt-hour (MWh) decrease in the California Independent System Operator’s (CAISO) wholesale electricity price. There is a net-negative short-term relationship between carbon dioxide emissions in California and electricity imports that is partially offset by positive emissions from exporting neighbors. Specifically, each 1 GWh increase in regional trade is associated with a net 70-ton average decrease in CO<sub>2</sub> emissions across the western U.S., conditional on demand levels. The results provide evidence that electricity imports mostly displace natural gas generation on the margin in the California electricity market. A small positive relationship is observed between short-run SO<sub>2</sub> and NO<sub>x</sub> emissions in neighboring regions and California electricity imports. The magnitude of the SO<sub>2</sub> and NO<sub>x</sub> results suggest an average increase of 0.1 MWh from neighboring coal plants is associated with a 1 MWh increase in imports to California.</p> Steven Dahlke Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 25 45 60 10.5278/ijsepm.3416 Energy Management using storage to facilitate high shares of Variable Renewable Energy <p>Remote islands are a very lucrative market for Variable Renewable Energy (VRE) resources. They rely on expensive fossil fuels, primarily diesel, to suffice their electrical generation demands and to ensure reliability. This not only makes them vulnerable to the fluctuating oil prices in the international market but also depletes their environment. The paper looks into establishing a renewable energy based power generation system facilitated by storage and takes the Island of Bonaire as the case study. Bonaire has good Solar resource summing up to around 1,826 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>, while a healthy Wind resource until September when it faces low wind speeds until December. Using the actual load profile obtained from the utility at Bonaire; WEB Bonaire, two scenarios are generated using Homer Pro software. The first scenario; business-as-usual, is based on replicating the current power system and establishing a baseline for further comparison. The second scenario; Renewable Energy Scenario, aims to facilitate high shares of Wind and Solar using storage technologies – Hydrogen to be used when the wind resources are low as a seasonal storage, and Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries to absorb surplus energy by VRE technologies and to be used when they are not available on daily basis. The RE scenario lowers the share of Diesel based power generation from 65.78% to 0.53% and results in an LCOE of 12.76€ cents/kWh. The RE scenario demonstrates the efficient use of Hydrogen production and storage over longer periods of times and illustrates its feasibility.</p> Jahanzeb Tariq Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 25 61 76 10.5278/ijsepm.3453 The role of solar PV, wind energy, and storage technologies in the transition toward a fully sustainable energy system in Chile by 2050 across power, heat, transport and desalination sectors <p>Renewable energies will play a significant role in a sustainable energy system in order to match the goal under the Paris Agreement. However, to achieve the goal it will be necessary to find the best country pathway, with global repercussion. This study reveals that an energy system based on 100% renewable resources in Chile could be technically feasible and even more cost-efficient than the current system. The Chilean energy system transition would imply a high level of electrification across all sectors, direct and indirectly. Simulation results using the LUT Energy System Transition model show that the primary electricity demand would rise from 31.1 TWh to 231 TWh by 2050, which represent about 78% of the total primary energy demand. Renewable electricity will mainly come from solar PV and wind energy technologies. Solar PV and wind energy installed capacities across all sectors would increase from 1.1 GW and 0.8 GW in 2015 to 43.6 GW and 24.8 GW by 2050, respectively. In consequence, the levelised cost of energy will be reduced in about 25%. Moreover, the Chilean energy system in 2050 would emit zero greenhouse gases. Additionally, Chile would become a country free of energy imports.</p> Juan Carlos Osorio Aravena Arman Aghahosseini Dmitrii Bogdanov Upeksha Caldera Emilio Muñoz-Cerón Christian Breyer Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 25 77 94 10.5278/ijsepm.3385 Identification of user requirements for an energy scenario database <p>Energy scenarios assist decision making regarding the transformation of the energy supply system. A multitude of scenarios exists in various formats. Thus, for scientists and policy stakeholders alike, it remains difficult to distinguish and compare scenario data. Hence, the aim of the project SzenarienDB is to establish an energy scenario database containing data in comparable and machine-readable format. SzenarienDB will do so by extending the OpenEnergyPlatform (OEP). To ensure that the extension fulfils the requirements of the modelling community, we conducted an online survey. We asked the participants about what they expected of an energy scenario database. Along with input from expert meetings and GitHub issues on that topic, we derived user requirement from the answers. In total, we identified 69 requirements. Out of these, around 44% were considered as very urgent. Hence, we conclude that there is a great need for the development of a consistent energy scenario database. To tackle the requirements we grouped these into twelve categories: input and output, data review process, bug-fixes, documentation, factsheets, features, functions to modify data, layout, metadata, ontology, references, and other. Each category is resolved according to its intrinsic properties.</p> Klara Reder Mirjam Stappel Christian Hofmann Hannah Förster Lukas Emele Ludwig Hülk Martin Glauer Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 25 95 108 10.5278/ijsepm.3327