International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management <p>The IJSEPM is an international interdisciplinary journal in Sustainable Energy Planning and Management combining engineering and social science within Energy System Analysis, Feasibility Studies and Public Regulation.<br><br>The journal is an international interdisciplinary journal in Sustainable Energy Planning and Management combining engineering and social science within Energy System Analysis, Feasibility Studies and Public Regulation.&nbsp;</p> <p>The journal especially welcomes papers within the following three focus areas:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Energy System analysis including theories, methodologies, data handling and software tools as well as specific models and analyses at local, regional, country and/or global level.</li> <li class="show">Economics, Socio economics and Feasibility studies including theories and methodologies of institutional economics as well as specific feasibility studies and analyses.</li> <li class="show">Public Regulation and management including theories and methodologies as well as specific analyses and proposals in the light of the implementation and transition into sustainable energy systems.</li> </ul> <p>The journal is approved by the Norwegian bibliometric&nbsp;<a href=";bibsys=false&amp;request_locale=en">Kanalregister</a>&nbsp;as well as its Danish counterpart&nbsp;<a href="">BFI</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>The journal is registered/indexed in/by&nbsp;<a href=";sort=cp-f&amp;src=s&amp;st1=journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management&amp;nlo=&amp;nlr=&amp;nls=&amp;sid=AC1664C401CEF186228B39264A2A35D7.wsnAw8kcdt7IPYLO0V48gA%3a10&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=b&amp;sl=63&amp;s=SRCTITLE%28journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management%29&amp;ss=cp-f&amp;ps=r-f&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;origin=resultslist&amp;zone=resultslist">Scopus</a>&nbsp;(Press link to see all published articles in IJSEPM), &nbsp;<a href="">Ulrichs Web</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Directory of Open-Access Journals</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Sherpa/Romeo</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="">DataCite</a></p> en-US International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management 2246-2929 <p><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/admin/cc_88.png" alt=""></a></p> <p>Articles published in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management&nbsp;are following the license&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)</a></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License: Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs (by-nc-nd). Further information about&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons</a></p> <p>Authors can archive post-print&nbsp;(final draft post-refereering) on personal websites or institutional repositories under these conditions:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Publishers version cannot be stored elsewhere but on publishers homepage</li> <li class="show">Published source must be acknowledged</li> <li class="show">Must link to publisher version</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Developments in 4th generation district heating <p>This editorial introduces the 20<sup>th</sup> volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. Papers included are all from the conference on 4<sup>th</sup> generation District heating and Smart Energy Systems, Aalborg, 2017, treating the control of heat systems, technical and non-technical barriers to low-temperature district heating. Temperature levels are also key-parameters in an investigation of heat pumps and heat sources for heat pumps in Tallinn. In parallel to apps focusing on electricity systems, an app focusing on heat systems is presented.</p> Poul Alberg Østergaard Henrik Lund Brian Vad Mathiesen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 20 10.5278/ijsepm.2019.20.1 A multi-objective optimization analysis to assess the potential economic and environmental benefits of distributed storage in district heating networks: a case study <p>Conventionally, district heating networks have been developed with a centralized logic, with large generation units designed to provide space heating to distributed users. Some networks have already evolved to a stage in which multiple generation units are distributed throughout the network and are supplying heat from different sources and with different schedules. ICT technologies can be the basis for a live optimization of the network, which can be implemented by minimizing energy supply cost for the users or minimizing greenhouse gases emissions.</p> <p>This paper presents an analysis of the potential effects of including distributed heat storage units to an existing DH network, as the first step toward opening the interaction with users. The results show the limited effect of the demand profile variation in comparison with the potential benefits of optimization strategies against the current operation of the case study under analysis, the main reason being the good flexibility of the available heat generation units. Thus, the installation of distributed storage units should be preferred in DH networks characterized by a large share of non-flexible generation options, such as solar energy or waste heat from industries, or where the energy prices show large variations over the day.</p> Roberta Roberto Raffaele De Iulio Marialaura Di Somma Giorgio Graditi Giambattista Guidi Michel Noussan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 20 10.5278/ijsepm.2019.20.2 Development of a user-friendly mobile app for the national level promotion of the 4th generation district heating <p>The consumers are considered to play one of the most significant roles in the district heating transition process towards the 4<sup>th</sup> generation. &nbsp;Unfortunately, the lack of information and widespread consumer ignorance of interconnections and dependencies in the district heating system can lead to a situation where consumers are not interested in the development of the district heating system, or might even choose other heat sources. One of the possible solutions to provide information and educate consumers is a user-friendly, simplified mobile app that can show actual heat consumption structure, provide the possibility to compare the district heating supply with other heat supply solutions and provide information on how consumer behaviour affects the district heating system and how the district heating system transition towards the 4<sup>th</sup> generation will change the primary energy consumption and CO<sub>2 </sub>emissions. In this article, the authors present the concept and algorithm of a DHS promo mobile app that will be used at the national level in Estonia, that will allow consumers even with an insufficient amount of data available to each apartment/building owner to receive comprehensive information about the existing DHS and analyse how DHS improvements will affect the fuel mix and consumption amount required for heat supply per consume.</p> Anna Volkova Eduard Latõšov Vladislav Mašatin Andres Siirde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 20 10.5278/ijsepm.2019.20.3 Method for addressing bottleneck problems in district heating networks <p>To work with lowering the system temperatures in district heating (DH) grids is an important factor for system efficiency. Lower system temperatures are related to for example heat losses and production unit efficiency. One obstacle to lower supply temperatures are so called bottlenecks in DH networks. Bottlenecks are areas in the DH network that have very low differential pressure, which makes it difficult to supply them with enough heat. There are many possible solutions to bottlenecks, but presently the decision making process most often do not include all possible bottleneck solutions and also often do not include all important factors affecting the outcome. The aim of this study is to propose a structured and general modus operandi, in order to find the best bottleneck solution for a specific situation. In this study we conducted analyses of previous bottleneck studies, workshops and interviews. The results show a decision making process developed to be a tool when choosing a bottleneck solution. Coupled to the decision making process, a summary of advantages and disadvantages for different factors and bottlenecks solutions is presented, as well as a real case where the decision making process is used.</p> Lisa Brange Kerstin Sernhed Marcus Thern ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-26 2019-03-26 20 10.5278/ijsepm.2020.19.4 Classification through analytic hierarchy process of the barriers in the revamping of traditional district heating networks into low temperature district heating: an Italian case study <p>The revamping of existing high temperature district heating systems with low temperature solutions will ensure a better usage of primary energy thanks to the reduction of thermal losses through the networks and to the possibility of use low grade enthalpy heat for the scope, including renewables and waste heat. However, several criticalities are present that make the evolution from the 3<sup>rd</sup> to the 4<sup>th</sup> generation of district heating not immediate.</p> <p>The paper aims to identify general technological and non-technological barriers in the revamping of traditional district heating networks into low temperature ones, with a particular focus on the Italian framework. Possible solutions are suggested, including also relevant advices for decision makers. Furthermore, the paper analyses how the possible solutions required for the up-grade of the existing district heating network can be classified through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to prioritize the best resulting ones for more advanced evaluations.</p> Marco Pellegrini Augusto Bianchini Alessandro Guzzini Cesare Saccani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-22 2019-02-22 20 10.5278/ijsepm.2019.20.5 Modelling framework for integration of large-scale heat pumps in district heating using low-temperature heat sources <p>The paper presents a modelling framework that may be used to plan the integration of large-scale HPs in district heating (DH) areas. By use of the methodology both optimal HP capacities to be installed and optimal choice of heat source to be used during the year are identified by minimizing total cost of ownership including investment and operational costs. The modelling framework uses mixed-integer linear programming and hourly calculations over one year. Seasonal variations of the heat source temperatures, capacity limitations and HP coefficient of performance as well as technical constraints were taken into account.</p> <p>The DH network of Tallinn, Estonia, was used as a case study. Six different heat source types were identified for 13 potential locations of large-scale HPs.</p> <p>The results showed that the integration of large-scale HPs in the DH network of Tallinn is economically feasible. It was found that 122 MW HP capacity could be installed without compromising the operation of sustainable base load units. The heat sources needed for obtaining this solution were sewage water, river water, ambient air, seawater and groundwater. It was further shown that the Lorenz efficiency depends on the variations of heat source temperatures.</p> Henrik Pieper Vladislav Mašatin Anna Volkova Torben Ommen Brian Elmegaard Wiebke Brix Markussen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-18 2019-03-18 20 10.5278/ijsepm.2019.20.6 Title Page Poul Alberg Østergaard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 20