International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management <p>The IJSEPM is an international interdisciplinary journal in Sustainable Energy Planning and Management combining engineering and social science within Energy System Analysis, Feasibility Studies and Public Regulation.<br><br>The journal focuses on:</p> <p>- <span style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica',sans-serif; color: #333333;">Energy System analysis of the transition to sustainable energy systems. This includes specific scenarios, models and analyses at local, regional, country and global level as well as studies of theories, methodologies, and software tools used in such transition analyses.</span></p> <p>- Economics, Socio economics and Feasibility studies including theories and methodologies of institutional economics as well as specific feasibility studies and analyses of the transition to sustainable energy systems.</p> <p>- Public Regulation and management including theories and methodologies as well as specific analyses and proposals in the light of the implementation and transition into sustainable energy systems.</p> <p>IJSEPM is approved by the Finish bibliometric <a href=";konferenssilyh=&amp;issn=&amp;tyyppi=kaikki&amp;kieli=&amp;maa=&amp;wos=&amp;scopus=&amp;nappi=S%C3%B6k">Publication Forum</a>, the Norwegian bibliometric <a href=";bibsys=false&amp;request_locale=en">Kanalregister</a> as well as the Danish&nbsp; <a href="">BFI</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>The journal is registered/indexed in/by&nbsp;<a href=";sort=cp-f&amp;src=s&amp;st1=journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management&amp;nlo=&amp;nlr=&amp;nls=&amp;sid=AC1664C401CEF186228B39264A2A35D7.wsnAw8kcdt7IPYLO0V48gA%3a10&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=b&amp;sl=63&amp;s=SRCTITLE%28journal+of+sustainable+energy+planning+and+management%29&amp;ss=cp-f&amp;ps=r-f&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;origin=resultslist&amp;zone=resultslist">Scopus</a>&nbsp;(Press link to see all published articles in IJSEPM), &nbsp;<a href="">Ulrichs Web</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Directory of Open-Access Journals</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">Sherpa/Romeo</a> and <a href="">DataCite</a></p> <p>Published by <a href="">Aalborg University Press.</a></p> en-US <p><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/admin/cc_88.png" alt=""></a></p> <p>Articles published in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management&nbsp;are following the license&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)</a></p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License: Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs (by-nc-nd). Further information about&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons</a></p> <p>Authors can archive post-print&nbsp;(final draft post-refereering) on personal websites or institutional repositories under these conditions:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Publishers version cannot be stored elsewhere but on publishers homepage</li> <li class="show">Published source must be acknowledged</li> <li class="show">Must link to publisher version</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> (Poul Alberg Østergaard) (Poul Alberg Østergaard) Tue, 18 May 2021 19:33:13 +0200 OJS 60 Latest Developments in 4th generation district heating and smart energy systems <p>This editorial introduces the 31<sup>st</sup> volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. This volume reports some of the latest developments in energy systems analyses of smart energy systems and of district heating as well as in methods and analyses using multi-objective optimisation. In one of the analyses, the authors investigate the effects of decentralised storage in district heating systems, finding positive effects on grid design as the impact of peaks can be reduced. Three contributions address the more sociological factors influencing acceptance and energy system development such as ownership, awareness, and moral.</p> Poul Alberg Østergaard; Rasmus Magni Johannsen, Henrik Lund, Brian Vad Mathiesen Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Optimal Design of District Heating Networks with Distributed Thermal Energy Storages – Method and Case Study <p>District heating systems have a great potential for supporting the energy transition towards a renewa-ble energy system, and could also be an option in less dense populated urban districts and rural communities with a medium heat density. In these cases, distributed thermal energy storages at each building could improve the overall system performance by enabling a leaner sizing of the piping sys-tems due to peak-shaving and reducing the heat losses of the distribution grid. But how can distribut-ed storages already be considered within the design of the district heating network itself? And what are the quantitative benefits with respect to the district heating piping system? This paper answers these questions and presents an open-source optimisation approach for designing the piping network of a district heating system. This includes the optimisation of the network topology, the dimensioning of the pipes, and the consideration of distributed storage options. A linear mixed-integer program-ming model with a high spatial resolution including heat storages at each customer has been imple-mented. Within the QUARREE100 project, the approach is demonstrated on a real world case of an existing district with 129 houses in the provincial town Heide in Northern Germany. In the scenario with 1 m³ heat storages, the thermal losses of the district heating network can be reduced by 10.2 % and the total costs by 13.1 %.</p> Johannes Röder, Benedikt Meyer, Uwe Krien, Joris Zimmermann, Torben Stührmann, Edwin Zondervan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Energy system benefits of combined electricity and thermal storage integrated with district heating <p>In the development towards a smart and renewable energy systems with increasing supply of electricity from fluctuating sources there is an increasing need for system flexibility. In this context the role and need for grid-level electricity storage is debated. Ideally, there would not be a need for storage, but the alternative system flexibility solutions may not cover all the flexibility needs, which will leave a potential for storage of electricity. In this study a compressed heat energy storage (CHEST) is assessed. It combines electricity and thermal storage in one system and can simultaneously benefit electricity and district heating systems. In a technical energy system analysis with the energy system of Germany as a case, a CHEST system is analyzed in different configurations with and without district heating integration. The results indicate that electrochemical storage is more effective than CHEST if district heating integration is not assumed. However, if district heating integration is assumed, CHEST can be more effective in reducing primary energy supply. This applies for district heating based on electrified heat sources, whereas in district heating supplied by combined heat and power plants and fuel boilers, CHEST do not show more effective.</p> Rasmus Lund Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Methodology to design district heating systems with respect to local energy potentials, CO2-emission restrictions, and federal subsidies using oemof <p class="Test" style="text-align: justify;">To combine a variety of different heat generating technologies, static design methods will not be sufficient to design future heat supply systems. New energy system design approaches are being developed with consideration of fluctuating renewable energy sources, different subsidy measures, as well as CO<sub>2</sub>-emission reduction targets. The motive of this study is to develop a new methodology to design and optimise an energy system considering these constraints. The methodology is developed based on the Open Energy Modelling Framework (oemof) and applied on a sub-urban region in northern Germany. Local specifics of energy source potentials are taken into account. It adapts the boundary conditions of a German federal funding program for innovative heat supply networks “Heating Network Systems 4.0.” Federal funding restrictions of combined heat and power systems and self-consumption are also considered. An economic optimisation was conducted considering a variety of energy sources. Cost optimal energy system design was computed regarding investments costs, energy prices and annual CO<sub>2</sub>-emission restrictions. The integration of combined heat and power (CHP), photovoltaic (PV) and heat pump (HP) systems in combination with storage size optimisation can reduce CO<sub>2</sub>-emission of heat production by approx. 69% compared to the current state of heat production.</p> Mathias Kersten, Max Bachmann, Tong Guo, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kriegel Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 A validated method to assess the network length and the heat distribution costs of potential district heating systems in Italy <p>The evaluation of the district heating network investment costs requires knowledge of its topology. However, when assessing district heating potential, the topology is not known a priori and a simulation is required. One method for the generation of simulated networks involves the use of Minimum Spanning Tree, from the graph theory. In this work a method that simulate the network through MST is presented. The census sections borders and local road networks are used as inputs for the identification of the MST. The method has been validated by running experimental simulations in areas where the district heating is already present, allowing the comparison of the respective lengths. The validation showed a variable but systematic overestimation. The study of the error has brought to defining correlations correcting the length of the MST. The MST has been then used together with real networks lengths to elaborate a novel equation describing the effective width in correlation with the number of building ratio instead of plot ratio. The new expression confirms the exponential tendency of the effective width and gives higher results for Italian cities then for Scandinavian ones, showing an important impact of city structure in the curve. The city of Milano is finally used as a case study to show the effects of using the updated effective width curve.</p> Alice Dénarié, Samuel Macchi, Fabrizio Fattori, Giulia Spirito, Mario Motta, Urban Persson Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Impact of Local Climate Policy on District Heating Development in a Nordic city – a Dynamic Approach <p>On a national level, Sweden has announced plans to have no net emissions of greenhouse gases in 2045. Furthermore, Gothenburg, a city in southwestern Sweden, has plans to phase out the use of fossil fuels in its heat and electricity production by 2030. Given that the development of a district heating (DH) system under dynamic and different climate policies and climate goals is a nontrivial problem, this study investigates two different policies of phasing out fossil fuels, either by introducing a fossil fuel ban, or by increasing the carbon tax to phase out the fossil fuel use in 2030 or 2045. The effects of the different phase out strategies on the future development of the existing DH system in Gothenburg has been investigated. The study is based on a system-wide approach covering both the supply and demand side developments. A TIMES system cost optimization model representing the DH system of Gothenburg was developed and applied for calculations. The results show that the total amount of heat supplied by the DH system is unaffected by the phase out policies. The amount of natural gas used to supply the DH system is however dependent on what kind of phase out policy is implemented. A yearly linearly increasing carbon tax policy introduced in 2021 phases out fossil fuel use earlier than the target year, while a ban phases out the fossil fuel only from the actual target year.</p> Karl Vilén, Sujeetha Selvakkumaran, Erik O. Ahlgren Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Waste-heat utilization potential in a hydrogen-based energy system - An exploratory focus on Italy <p>The target of the full decarbonisation by 2050 requires high penetration of renewables, with the development of overgeneration situations in the energy system. Hydrogen and electro-fuels could play a key role in hard-to-abate sectors and in grid balancing. By means of the developed NEMeSI model we study the Italian future energy mix, including several Power-to-X (P2X) options to accommodate high RES introduction. The model is set to solve a linear optimization problem, by optimizing the use of resources through the minimization of the supply costs. The use of excess power from renewables is evaluated in solutions such as hydrogen production and electro-fuels synthesis, coupled to Power-to-Heat and storage systems. The model studies the Italian case in a decarbonised scenario and provides an estimation of potential waste heat recovery from the P2X processes, differentiating from low to high temperature waste heat. Waste heat can be used for district heating purposes or for power generation via organic Rankine cycle. Both high and low temperature heat recovery show a potential in the order of tens of TWh, with a preference for power generation use.</p> Francesco Mezzera, Fabrizio Fattori, Alice Dénarié, Mario Motta Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Energy hub optimization framework based on open-source software & data - review of frameworks and a concept for districts & industrial parks <p>Multi-model energy systems are gaining importance in a world where different types of energy, such as electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, and hot water, are used to create more complex but also more economic energy systems to support deep decarbonization.&nbsp; While the research community is using open source for a long-time collaborative work on open-source tools is not yet the norm within the research community.&nbsp; To increase the open and sharing efforts between research organizations governments are driving publicly funded projects to share their outcomes.&nbsp; The proposed open-source framework is based on the principle of maximizing the reuse of existing data, software snippets and packages, and add individual code only as necessary.&nbsp; A screening of more than hundred software packages identified six suitable open-source frameworks to be partly incorporated into the new open-source framework.&nbsp; The best parts of each of these frameworks are combined in a way that utilizes limited human resources in an optimal way.&nbsp; To further improve the so created energy system framework additional features such as a scenery model to incorporate shadowing and elevation effects on conventional and renewable power generation technologies are included.&nbsp; Going forward, this approach allows to expand research into urban air assessment in which traffic and energy emissions can be assessed jointly.</p> Markus Groissböck Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Techno-economic evaluation of electricity price-driven heat production of a river water heat pump in a German district heating system <p>Large scale heat pumps (HP) are an important technology that will link district heating (DH) systems to the electricity sector in future smart energy systems. This paper examines the feasibility of the integration of a river water HP at a combined heat and power plant in Germany. It is part of a more extensive study about the transformation of a DH system in an urban district towards a 4<sup>th</sup> generation DH system. The focus is on operational characteristics and economic efficiency of electricity price-driven heat production. A novel method for estimating the coefficient of performance (COP) of two-stage ammonia HPs based on the difference between sink and source temperature is presented. The HP achieves a seasonal COP in the range of 3.4 to 3.7. The 15-year simulation with the software energyPRO shows that electricity-price driven operation is especially relevant for lower heat loads during the non-heating season. The correlation between volatility of electricity market price change and flexible operation is analysed. Finally, the levelized cost of heat for four designs with heat outputs of the HP from 4.7 MW<sub>th</sub> to 6.1 MW<sub>th</sub> and increasing storage sizes are compared. The results indicate that electricity costs are reduced in more flexible systems, but cost parity to the minimum dimensioning is not yet reached with the underlying economic framework conditions. However, the parameters that benefit the economic efficiency of more flexible systems are discussed.</p> Ulrich Trabert, Mateo Jesper, Weena Bergstraesser, Isabelle Best, Oleg Kusyy, Janybek Orozaliev, Klaus Vajen Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Disruption, Disaster and Transition: Analysis of Electricity Usage in Japan from 2005 to 2016 <p>This research analyzes the changes to electricity generation and demand in Japan following both the Global Financial Crisis and Disaster of March 2011. Monthly electricity demand and generation data for all regions of Japan from April 2005 to March 2016 were reviewed to identify differences in disruption-response between different types of electricity users. We apply inferential statistics to identify underlying trends, which we find are dominated by differences in user scale response. Higher capacity users reduced demand in response to the Global Financial Crisis, whereas smaller domestic scale users reduced electricity demand after the Disaster. Analysis reveals that regions within the 50Hz grid that were directly impacted by the Fukushima event and resulting load restrictions showed a statistically significant sustained reduction in monthly electricity demand post-disaster. However, Kansai and Shikoku, regions that are both outside the area directly impacted by the Fukushima event, also showed the same sorts of sustained significant reductions. By considering two disruptions to the same sociotechnical system we can draw conclusions that add to the discourse of electricity use behaviors, which informs both disaster response planning and policy for the broader issues of electricity demand reduction for climate stabilisation. In particular, the results highlight the importance of tailoring engagement and intervention actions to the preferences and needs of different types of electricity users.</p> Kelly D'Alessandro, Paul Dargusch, Andrew Chapman Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Is local always best? Social acceptance of small hydropower projects in Norway. <p>Small-scale development of renewable energy has been identified as one possible solution to meet future energy needs and is well aligned with the general European trend towards further development of community energy projects. Increased local energy production will move energy plants closer to habitation, placing aspects related to social acceptance at the center stage [1, 2]. Until recently, small hydro power [3] projects in Norway have been owned by local farmers and others with property rights to rivers. As the profitability of these projects has decreased, international investors have taken interest in SHP projects as part of their long-term investment strategy. In this paper, we study what influences social acceptance of SHP projects in Norway based on interviews and qualitative data from different SHP projects in Norway. We find that community energy projects often are attributed positive qualities when ownership is local. Thus, we argue that there is a need to consider more thoroughly how to organize ownership of small-scale renewables in the future, if it is to uphold its position as a popular and viable solution to meet future energy needs [3].</p> Bente Johnsen Rygg, Marianne Ryghaug, Gunnar Yttri Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Energy Consumption Efficiency Behaviours and Attitudes among the Community <p>The world is currently experiencing a high demand for energy that leads to an increase in energy consumption. The increased energy consumption rate leads to a rise in greenhouse gas emissions which provide climate change concerns in our earth. To tackle increased environmental challenges, there is a need for adopting energy behaviours among society globally. This review provides an overview of the approaches, theories, and models which explain in detail how human behaviours can influence energy use and hence increase energy saving. It furthermore evaluates the factors that influence human behaviours and attitudes toward energy consumption. In this section, the discussion is based on motivation factors; costs and benefits; moral and normative concerns; environmental norms, knowledge and concerns; technology adoption concerns; contextual and habitual factors; and awareness. To achieve this, a comprehensive literature review followed by Seven-Step Model was conducted involving relevant studies related to the study topic.</p> Obadia Kyetuza Bishoge, Godlisten Gladstone Kombe, Benatus Norbert Mvile Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Multi-objective Analysis of Sustainable Generation Expansion Planning based on Renewable Energy Potential: A case study of Bali Province of Indonesia <p>This article analyzes the role of renewable energy in producing sustainable generation expansion planning. The generation expansion planning is carried out using an optimization model which has two objective functions, namely the objective function of planning costs and the objective function of emissions. Multi-objective analysis was performed using the epsilon constraint method to produce the Pareto set. Solution points are selected from the Pareto set generated using the fuzzy decision making method. The process of determining the best solution points is based on three scenarios. Furthermore, calculations were carried out to obtain 7 indicators of sustainability covering economic, social, and environmental aspects. The sustainability index is calculated based on several predetermined policy options. The model is implemented using data obtained from the electricity system in Bali Province, Indonesia. From the analysis, the planning scenario by implementing renewable energy sources in the generation of electrical energy, namely scenario 3, results in an increase in the sustainability index with the highest value during the planning period. However, scenario 3 produces two sustainability indices from the economic aspect, namely the unit cost of generation and shared electricity cost to GDP, which is the lowest when compared to other scenarios.</p> Rahmat Adiprasetya Al Hasibi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Energy System Optimization including Carbon-Negative Technologies for a High-Density Mixed-Use Development <p>I</p> <p>In this paper, we use the ‘energy hub’ optimization model to perform a multi-objective analysis on a high-density mixed-use development (termed the ‘mothership’) under different scenarios and compare these results to appropriate base cases. These scenarios explore how the optimal energy system changes under different assumptions, including a high carbon tax, net metering, net-zero emissions and negative emissions, as well as two different electrical grid carbon intensities. We also include ‘carbon negative’ technologies involving biochar production, to explore the role that such processes can play in reducing the net emissions of energy systems. The annualized cost and total emissions of the mothership with a simple energy system are 4 and 8.7 times lower respectively than a base case using single detached homes housing the same population, due to the more efficient form and hence lower energy demand. Of the scenarios examined, it is notable that the case with the lowest annualized cost was one with a net-zero carbon emissions restriction. This gave an annualized cost of CAD 2.98M, which 36% lower than the base case annualized cost of CAD 4.66M. This relied upon the carbon negative production and sale of biochar. All scenarios examined had lower annualized costs than the base cases with many of the cases having negative operating costs (generating profit) due to the sale of renewable energy or carbon credits. This illustrates that the integration of renewable energy technologies is not only beneficial for reducing emissions but can also provide an income stream. These results give hope that suitably optimized urban developments may be able to implement low cost solutions that have zero net emissions.</p> Wesley Bowley, Ralph Evins Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200