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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format and the figures are supplied separately as image files as per the Author Guidelines.
  • The text is double-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and the placing of all illustrations, figures, and tables are noted within the text at the appropriate points.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines

Author GuidelinesPlease prepare your manuscript for submission, using the following guidelines inspired by a series of publicly available guidelines from publishing houses such as Emerald, Routledge, Grant Thornton and Elsevier that have been adjusted to the preferred format of the Journal of Business Models.


All files should be submitted as a Word document

File formatting

Files should be formatted as follows.

Main document: Title Year

Article title page: ATP Title Year

Article Length

The typical article would be between 5000 and 8000 words in length, but we stress concision and contribution rather than counting words.

Article Title

Provide a concise and informative title. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems and will benefit the searchability of the work on for example Google Scholar going forward. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Article Title Page

An Article Title Page should be submitted alongside each individual article using the Article Title Page template. This should include:

  • Article Title
  • Author Details (see below)
  • Acknowledgements
  • Author Biographies
  • Structured Abstract (see below)
  • Keywords (see below)
  • Article Classification (see below)

Author Details

Details should be supplied on the Article Title Page including:

  • Full name of each author
  • Affiliation of each author, at time research was completed
  • Where more than one author has contributed to the article, details of who should be contacted for correspondence
    • E-mail address of the corresponding author
    • Brief professional biography of each author.

Structured Abstract

Authors must supply a structured abstract on the Article Title Page, set out under 4-7 sub-headings:

  • Purpose (mandatory)
  • Design/methodology/approach (mandatory)
  • Findings (mandatory)
  • Research limitations/implications (if applicable)
  • Practical implications (if applicable)
  • Social implications (if applicable)
  • Originality/value (mandatory)

Maximum is 250 words in total (including keywords and article classification, see below). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Please provide up to 6 keywords on the Article Title Page, which encapsulate the principal topics of the paper. Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.

The keywords will be used for indexing purposes, so although we will endeavour to use submitted keywords in the published version, all keywords are subject to approval by the editorial team and may be replaced by a matching term to ensure consistency.

Article Classification

Categorize your paper on the Article Title Page, under one of these classifications:

  • Research paper
  • Viewpoint
  • Technical paper
  • Conceptual paper
  • Case study
  • Literature review
  • General review


Headings must be concise, with a clear indication of the distinction between the hierarchy of headings.


The preferred format is for first level headings to be presented with a numerical indication in front (i.e. 1. Introduction) in bold format and subsequent sub-headings to be presented in medium italics but without numerical indications.


Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.



Footnotes or endnotes should be used only if absolutely necessary and must be identified in the text by consecutive numbers, enclosed in square brackets and listed at the end of the article.

Research Funding

Authors must declare all sources of external research funding in their article and a statement to this effect should appear in the Acknowledgements section. Authors should describe the role of the funder or financial sponsor in the entire research process, from study design to submission.


All Figures (charts, diagrams, line drawings, web pages/screenshots, and photographic images) should be supplied as separate files in their original format and in the article, the placing the authors recommend should be noted.

All Figures should be of high quality and numbered consecutively with arabic numerals. Graphics may be supplied in color to facilitate their appearance.

  • Figures created in MS Word, MS PowerPoint, MS Excel, Illustrator etc. should be supplied in their native formats. Electronic figures created in other applications should be supplied in a high-resolution standard image file: .pdf, .ai, .eps.
  • Figures which cannot be supplied in as the above are acceptable in graphics formats: .png or .gif, at a resolution of at least 300dpi.
  • Photographic images should be submitted electronically and of high quality. They should be included as .jpeg file at a resolution of at least 300dpi and at least 10cm wide. Digital camera settings should be set at the highest resolution/quality possible.


Tables should be typed and included in a separate file to the main body of the article. The position of each table should be clearly labeled in the body text. Ensure that any superscripts or asterisks are shown next to the relevant items and have corresponding explanations displayed as footnotes to the table, figure or plate.

Captions for figures and tables

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


References to other publications must be in Harvard style and carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency.

References must include DOIs. The DOI should be listed as the entire URL:, not just 10.xxxx/xxxx. If you have a reference list without DOIs you can copy-paste it into Crossref’s help tool, the Simple Text Query form:

For references in a special issue, please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same special issue.

You should cite publications in the text: (Black, 2012) using the first named author's name or (Black and White, 2012) citing both names of two, or (Black et al., 2012), when there are three or more authors. At the end of the paper a reference list in alphabetical order should be supplied:

For books

Surname, Initials (year), Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication.


e.g. Huff, A.S. (1999), Writing for Scholarly Publication, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks.

For book chapters

Surname, Initials (year), Chapter title, Editor's Surname, Initials, Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.


e.g. Calabrese, F.A. (2005), The early pathways: theory to practice – a continuum, in Stankosky, M. (Ed.), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, New York, NY, pp. 15-20.

For journals

Surname, Initials (year), Title of article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages.


e.g. Nielsen, C. & Montemari, M. (2012), The role of human resources in business model performance: The case of network-based companies, Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 142-164.

For published

conference proceedings

Surname, Initials (year of publication), "Title of paper", in Surname, Initials (Ed.), Title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.


e.g. Jakkilinki, R., Georgievski, M. and Sharda, N. (2007), "Connecting destinations with an ontology-based e-tourism planner", in Information and communication technologies in tourism 2007 proceedings of the international conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, pp. 12-32.

For unpublished

conference proceedings

Surname, Initials (year), "Title of paper", paper presented at Name of Conference, date of conference, place of conference, available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).


e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), "Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki", paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: (accessed 20 February 2007).

For working papers

Surname, Initials (year), "Title of article", working paper [number if available], Institution or organization, Place of organization, date.


e.g. Moizer, P. (2003), "How published academic research can inform policy decisions: the case of mandatory rotation of audit appointments", working paper, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, 28 March.

For encyclopedia entries

(with no author or editor)

Title of Encyclopedia (year) "Title of entry", volume, edition, Title of Encyclopedia, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.


e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1926) "Psychology of culture contact", Vol. 1, 13th ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, London and New York, NY, pp. 765-71.


(For authored entries please refer to book chapter guidelines above)

For newspaper

articles (authored)

Surname, Initials (year), "Article title", Newspaper, date, pages.


e.g. Smith, A. (2008), "Money for old rope", Daily News, 21 January, pp. 1, 3-4.

For newspaper

articles (non-authored)

Newspaper (year), "Article title", date, pages.


e.g. Daily News (2008), "Small change", 2 February, p. 7.

For electronic sources

If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as a date that the resource was accessed.


e.g. Castle, B. (2005), "Introduction to web services for remote portlets", available at: (accessed 12 November 2007).


Standalone URLs, i.e. without an author or date, should be included either within parentheses within the main text, or preferably set as a note (roman numeral within square brackets within text followed by the full URL address at the end of the paper).


Business Model Conference

This section is for submission to the Business Model Conference.

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