Extending the Business-to-Business (B2B) model towards a Business-to-Consumer (B2C) model for Telemonitoring Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

  • Andrija S. Grustam Professional Healthcare Services & Solutions, Philips Research; Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam
  • Hubertus J.M. Vrijhoef Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore; Department of Patient & Care, Maastricht UMC, The Netherlands; Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Belgium
  • Vasilis Poulikidis Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University
  • Ron Koymans Professional Healthcare Services & Solutions, Philips Research
  • Johan L. Severens Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam; iMTA, Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Abstract

Purpose: We describe and perform an initial evaluation of the extension of the Business-to-Business model to a Business-to-Consumer model for telemonitoring of patients with chronic heart failure.

Design/methodology/approach: We explored the problems in implementation of telemonitoring via the B2B model by means of a root cause analysis, including the 5-whys method to help us understand the shortcomings of the B2B approach, and then the 5W1H method to explore whether the B2C is a better strategy. The extension of the model was executed in the Business Model Generation framework. By using qualitative content analysis techniques, we supported our argumentation with findings from other studies.

Findings: The B2C model is based on the interplay of agents – healthcare provider, equipment manufacturer, payer/regulator and distributor/promotor – all working together to improve patient outcomes. In our opinion, the success of the extended model in telemonitoring CHF patients hinges on two entities – the Telemonitoring center and Telehealth nurses – being repositioned in the out-of-the hospital setting.

Social implications: Penetration of mobile telehealth via B2C model will allow for greater availability, access and equity in healthcare.

Originality/value: We introduced a fourth pillar to the existing B2B model (i.e. distributors and/or promotors). The B2C model we propose might allow for scalability, generalizability and transferability of telemonitoring currently unattained with the B2B model.  

Author Biographies

Andrija S. Grustam, Professional Healthcare Services & Solutions, Philips Research; Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Andrija is a medical doctor, scientist and entrepreneur. He received his medical degree with honors from University of Belgrade, Serbia, while simultaneously working in the media industry. He was a cofounder of a start-up which was creating multimedia content for national TV, internet and cell phone companies. He holds three M.Sc. degrees: in Public Health from Maastrich University in the Netherlands, in Healthcare Policy from L'École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Paris, France, and in Healthcare Management from Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, in Spain. Andrija is currently working on business innovation in telehealth in Philips Research and on health technology assessment of telemonitoring Chronic Heart Failure patients at the Institute of Health Policy and Management, of the Erasmus University Rotterdam in the Netherlands.

Hubertus J.M. Vrijhoef, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore; Department of Patient & Care, Maastricht UMC, The Netherlands; Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Belgium

Bert Vrijhoef is Professor in Health Services Research at the National University of Singapore (Sept 2012–now). He is also a senior research fellow at the Scientific Center for Care and Welfare at Tilburg University and principal investigator at the University Hospital Maastricht, Department of Patient and Care, The Netherlands. Since September 2012 he is guest Professor at the Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Department of General Practice and Chronic Care, Belgium. Recently, Bert became the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Care Coordination (SAGE Publications). Bert holds a Master in Health Policy & Management from the Erasmus University Rotterdam (1996) and a Ph.D. in Medical Sociology from Maastricht University (2002), the Netherlands.

Vasilis Poulikidis, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University

Vasilis holds B.Sc. in Business Administration and Management from Athens University of Economics and Business, and M.Sc. in Strategic Management from the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University in the Netherlands. He was a Research Analyst intern at Philips Research in Eindhoven and a Finance Analyst intern at Amazon in Luxembourg. He is currently working for Deloitte, Strategy and Operations Consulting, in Athens office. His research and business interests lay in firm’s ambidexterity, strategic and business planning, and impact analysis.

Ron Koymans, Professional Healthcare Services & Solutions, Philips Research

Ron Koymans received his M.Sc. degree in mathematics from Utrecht University in 1982 and his Ph.D. degree in computer science from Eindhoven University of Technology in 1989. An updated version of his Ph.D. thesis has been published as a monograph in the Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science series (Volume 651) in 1992. Since 1989 he has been an employee of Philips, currently in the position of principal architect within Philips Research. His research interests are service and business model innovation, health economics, and population health.

Johan L. Severens, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam; iMTA, Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Since 2009 Hans Severens is professor of Evaluation in Health Care at the iMTA. He holds a M.Sc. Policy and Management in Health Sciences from the Maastricht University, and a Ph.D. from the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. From 2001 until 2009 he was appointed as professor of Medical Technology Assessment at Maastricht University and co-head of the department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment of the University Hospital Maastricht. Hans’ work is focused on economic evaluations of health care technologies, either as part of clinical trials or independent modelling studies and working on the research methods within this field. Since 2008 Hans is a full member of the Dutch National Health Council (GezondheidsRaad) and for over 7 years member of the Committee ‘Farmaceutische Hulp’ (CFH) of the Health Care Insurance Board (CVZ), for drug reimbursement advice). He is former member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and was co-editor of the scientific journal of this society, ‘Value in Health’ for 10 years.

Published
22-01-2019