Ready, but challenged:

Diffusion and use of artificial intelligence and robotics in Danish firms


  • Allan Næs Gjerding Aalborg University Business School
  • Jacob Rubæk Holm Aalborg University Business School
  • Edward Lorenz
  • Jørgen Stamhus Aalborg University Business School



This working paper explores the diffusion and effects of artificial intelligence and robotics on work organization and skills formation in Danish private and public companies. The main focus is on how humans and technology interact, the extent to which employees have the skills to engage in this interaction, and the interplay between job content and technology. The main findings are the following: Artificial intelligence is more diffused and diffuses more rapidly than robotics, and this diffusion is uneven across Danish regions; Danish employees are very confident in using artificial intelligence and robotics, but half of the employees lack the necessary skills; skills are to an important extent acquired through on-the-job learning, which are insufficient in the long run; artificial intelligence involves a larger variety of learning than robotics and has a greater impact on tasks and work organization. The working paper con-cludes with recommendations for policy and management. Important recommendations are that there is a need for policy makers to focus on developing new formal education and training and to innovate existing education in order to ready current and future em-ployees for technological change, and that management needs to focus more on continuous development of their human capital. Lifelong learning and strategic human resource management become increasingly important.






Working Papers