The role of solar PV, wind energy, and storage technologies in the transition toward a fully sustainable energy system in Chile by 2050 across power, heat, transport and desalination sectors

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Juan Carlos Osorio Aravena
Arman Aghahosseini
Dmitrii Bogdanov
Upeksha Caldera
Emilio Muñoz-Cerón
Christian Breyer

Abstract

Renewable energies will play a significant role in a sustainable energy system in order to match the goal under the Paris Agreement. However, to achieve the goal it will be necessary to find the best country pathway, with global repercussion. This study reveals that an energy system based on 100% renewable resources in Chile could be technically feasible and even more cost-efficient than the current system. The Chilean energy system transition would imply a high level of electrification across all sectors, direct and indirectly. Simulation results using the LUT Energy System Transition model show that the primary electricity demand would rise from 31.1 TWh to 231 TWh by 2050, which represent about 78% of the total primary energy demand. Renewable electricity will mainly come from solar PV and wind energy technologies. Solar PV and wind energy installed capacities across all sectors would increase from 1.1 GW and 0.8 GW in 2015 to 43.6 GW and 24.8 GW by 2050, respectively. In consequence, the levelised cost of energy will be reduced in about 25%. Moreover, the Chilean energy system in 2050 would emit zero greenhouse gases. Additionally, Chile would become a country free of energy imports.

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