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This paper draws on three recent case studies which have shown encouraging economic results in meeting net zero carbon emissions targets through Smart Local Energy Systems (SLES) in different localities across England, based on the GreenSCIES model. The blueprint for the GreenSCIES SLES was developed in Islington, London, and consists of a 5th generation ambient loop district heat network using wasteheat from a large data centre, and includes electric vehicle charging, storage and solar PV. This allows for heat sharing between buildings and applications for heat recovery from local sources. In Sandwell, Birmingham, where the heating demand is nearly ten times higher than the cooling demand the design is based on a 4th generation heat network with wasteheat from a local metal foundry and some cooling supply and heat storage in the aquifer. A study in Barnsley, Sheffield, explored wasteheat from a local glass factory and considered mine workings for providing seasonal storage of heat for resilience to a single source industry. This scheme could be further expanded, increasing the available carbon emissions savings. These examples provide feasible and economic SLES projects demonstrating the importance of collaboration between researchers, local government and industry. They also illustrate adaptations of the original GreenSCIES concept providing pathways towards net zero carbon for a diverse range of urban locations with different housing density and waste heat sources.
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