Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

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Poul Alberg Østergaard
Henrik Lund
Brian Vad Mathiesen


Energy systems are becoming increasing increasingly complex, integrating across traditionally separate sectors such as transportation, heating, cooling and electricity. Integration through the use of district heating is the main topic of this editorial introducing volume 10 of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The editorial and the volume presents work on district heating system scenarios in Austria, grid optimisation using genetic algorithms and finally design of energy scenarios for the Italian Alpine town Bressanone-Brixen from a smart energy approach.

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